Articles should be written in US English. For any information that is not mentioned in these guidelines, authors should refer to Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, published by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

    Required Documents for New Submissions

    Cover Letter: Authors should introduce their work in a cover letter, addressing the aim of the study, its significant and novel findings, and its relationship to the present state of the field.

    Submission Form: The journal requires the consent of all authors upon submission, which verifies their agreement with the manuscript’s content and presentation and their knowledge of its submission to JCEH. Each author should include his or her category of contribution and list any potential conflicts of interest in all versions of the article.

    Letter of Permission: In cases where “personal communication” or “unpublished data” is cited in a manuscript, authors must obtain permission from the appropriate investigators to cite this material. In cases where previously published material is used in a manuscript, authors must obtain permission from the publisher to reproduce the material.

    Original Articles

    Original Articles should be divided into the following sections:
     • Title Page, which must include the article title, author name(s) and affiliation(s),
      contact information for the corresponding author (address, fax, and email), and
      a running title (40 characters or less).
     • Non-structured Abstract (maximum 250 words), and three to five unabbreviated keywords
     • Introduction
     • Materials and Methods
     • Results
     • Discussion
     • Acknowledgments
     • Disclosure of author contributions and Conflict-of-Interest Statements
     • References
     • Tables
     • Figure Legends
     • Description of additional data file (if any).
    Please note that we cannot process your manuscript if the Abstract or the References do not conform to JCEH style.

    Case Reports

    Case Reports should begin with a title page, abstract (maximum 250 words), and keywords in the same format as Original Articles. Manuscripts should then be divided into the following sections:
     • Introduction
     • Case report
     • Discussion
    Acknowledgement, Disclosure of COI, References, Tables, Figure legends should also be included. Materials and Methods can be inserted between Introduction and Case report as needed.

    Short Communications

    Short Communications should begin with a title page (with the heading “Short Communication” and including full contact information for the corresponding author). Manuscripts should not exceed 1500 words.

    Letters to the Editor

    Letters to the Editor should begin with a title page (with the heading “Letter to the Editor” and including full contact information for the corresponding author). Manuscripts should not exceed 800 words.

    Sponsorship and Funding/Financial Disclosure

    The Acknowledgments section is an appropriate place to recognize co-workers, indicate funding sources, and disclose information about affiliations and potential conflicts of interest (for example, commercial affiliations, patent-licensing arrangements). Authors must state all their sources of funding and any other financial and personal relationships that might bias their work. If the research reported in the manuscript has received partial or complete funding from commercial sponsors, the authors must include a statement to that effect in the Acknowledgments.

    The Editors reserve the right not to consider a manuscript if a sponsor has asserted control over the authors' right to publish their research results.


    Abbreviations should appear in parentheses immediately after the first appearance of the full word or phrase. Use the abbreviations thereafter in the text.

    Units of Measurement

    The following abbreviations should be used for units of measurement: L, dL, mL, kg, g, mg, ng, pg, m, cm, mm, nm, M (molar), mM (millimolar), Gy, ℃, mon, hr, min, sec, msec.

    Gene Nomenclature

    All gene names should be formatted in italics. Only gene names should use italics, to distinguish them from gene products, gene segments, clusters, families, complexes, or groups. Authors should use only the official gene name, as assigned by the relevant gene nomenclature committee.


    References are listed in a separate reference section immediately following the text. All references must be verified by the corresponding author who submits the manuscript to JCEH. Follow the style of the ICMJE’s Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals for reference format and Index Medicus for standard journal abbreviations (please see examples below). Number references sequentially in the order cited in the text. A reference cited only in a table or figure is numbered in the sequence established by the first mention in the text of the table or figure containing the reference.

    Including AI-generated material as the primary source in the reference is not allowed.

    Reference to a personal communication or to a manuscript categorized as in preparation or submitted for publication is discouraged. However, if such a reference is essential and refers to a written communication, the source is cited parenthetically in the text (not in the reference section) with the comment “unpublished data” or “personal communication.” Written permission from the source that is cited must be sent to the Editorial Office. Reference to a manuscript accepted but not yet published is listed in the reference section as “in press.” “In press” references must be updated by the authors as soon as publication data is available.

    In the References section, provide the names of all authors in a reference when there are five or fewer; if there are six or more authors, list the first three, followed by “et al.”

    Journal articles
    Include the following information in this order: authors, article title and subtitle, journal abbreviation, year, volume number in Arabic numerals, inclusive pages. For example:

     Tomita S, Kikuti YY, Carreras J, et al. Genomic and immunohistochemical profiles of
     enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma in Japan. Mod Pathol. 2015; 28:1286-1296.

    Include the following information in this order: authors, book title, edition (if other than the first), volume (if more than one), city, publisher, pages, year. For example:

     Lennert K, Feller AC: Histopathology of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas (Based on the
     Updated Kiel Classification). 2nd ed, Berlin, Springer-Verlag. 1981; pp. 1-44.

    Book chapters
    Include the following information in this order: authors of the chapter, title of the chapter, “In :”, editors/authors of the book (using “(eds)” to denote editors), title of the book, edition (if more than one), volume (if more than one), city, publisher, inclusive pages of the chapter, and year. For example:

     Stossel TP: The molecular basis of white blood cell motility. In : Stamatoyannopoulos G,
     Nienhuis AW, Majerus PW, Varmus H (eds): The Molecular Basis of Blood Diseases. 2nd
     ed, Philadelphia, Saunders. 1994; pp. 541- 562.


    Authors should upload high-quality graphic data for figures. All color figures are reproduced in full color in the digital version of the journal at no cost to authors. Authors are requested to pay the cost of reproducing color figures in print. Authors are encouraged to use color when necessary to convey essential scientific information. For best reproduction, bright, clear colors with high contrast should be used. Dark colors against a dark background do not reproduce well; place color images against a white background wherever possible. Files must be in CMYK color space. All figures of accepted manuscripts should be in PPT, JPG or TIF format. The minimum requirement for resolution is 300 DPI/PPI. These resolutions refer to the output size of the file; if you anticipate that your images will be enlarged or reduced, resolutions should be adjusted accordingly.

    Electronic Supplementary Material

    Material that is not suitable for print publication, such as very long tables, database information, etc., may be published online as electronic supplementary material. The final decision to do so, however, lies with the Editors. Electronic supplementary material can be edited if authors prefer, but additional fee will be charged. Please submit camera-ready files for this material in any way by the journal before publication.